NB: This section 8.1 becomes obsolete if you have upgraded to 2.8-stable (patch: ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/patches/2.8/common/008_kerberos.patch).
When you first install your system you will most likely notice a warning message that is something like this:
THIS WARNING IS COMPLETELY IRRELEVANT AND SHOULD ONLY BE REMOVED IF COMPLETELY NECESSARY
Well since you probably haven't set up Kerberos on your system, you wouldn't be getting a ticket. If you do have Kerberos running, you need to check into that. See faq10 Kerberos Setup FAQ. If you can't STAND that warning and never plan on using Kerberos here is how to get rid of it for good.
Simply type [ctrl] - [alt] - [One of the function keys] (i386)
Only the i386 arch has virtual terminal capabilities. You can also use virtual terminals when using X. For example, If you start X on term 1, and switch with [ctrl]-[alt]-[F2] to term 2, X will seem to disapear and will not come back by simply switching back to term 1. You must [ctrl]-[alt]-[F5] to get your X display back.
A few steps to recovery
If you have X completely set up and you are using an XF86Config that you know works then the problem most likely lies in the machdep.allowaperture. You also need to make sure that both:
option XSERVER option APERTURE
are in your kernel configuration. [BOTH of these are in the GENERIC kernel]
Then you need to edit /etc/sysctl.conf and set machdep.allowaperture=1. This will allow X to access the aperture driver. This would be set up if the question during install about whether or not you would be running X was answered correctly. OpenBSD requires for all X servers that the aperture driver be set, because it controls access to the I/O ports on video boards.
For other X problems on the i386, consult the XFree86 FAQ at http://www.xfree86.org/FAQ/.
CVS is what the OpenBSD project uses to control changes to the source code. CVS stands for Concurrent Versions System. You can read more about CVS at http://www.cyclic.com/. CVS can be used by the end user to keep up to date with source changes, and changes in the ports tree. CVS makes it extremely simple to download the source via one of the many CVS mirrors for the project.
There are a few ways to initially set up your CVS environment. To start off, you will need an initial CVS checkout of the sources. If you bought the CD, you're in luck, because it holds the CVS checkout for that release. You can extract it from your CD by doing one of the following:
1) copy the tree off it, (assuming the CD is mounted on /mnt):
# mkdir /usr/src # cd /mnt; cp -Rp CVS Makefile bin distrib etc games gnu \ include kerberosIV lib libexec lkm regress sbin share \ sys usr.bin usr.sbin /usr/src
2) Or, alternatively, use a union mount with the CD below a writable directory. However, be aware that the union filesystem code is not flawless.
# mkdir /usr/src # mount -t union -o -b /mnt /usr/src
after this, /usr/src will be a nice checkout area where all cvs(1) commands will work OK.
If you don't have an OpenBSD CD, you will have to retrieve the sources from on of the OpenBSD AnonCVS servers. These servers are listed on http://www.openbsd.org/anoncvs.html Once you have chosen a server you need to choose which module you are going to retrieve. There are three main modules available for checkout from the CVS tree. These are:
Now that you have decided which module that you wish to retrieve, there is one more step left before you can retrieve it. You must decide which method to use. CVS by default retrieves files using rsh(1), but some AnonCVS servers don't allow for this so in most cases it's best to use ssh. For those of you behind a firewall there are also the options of pserver and some AnonCVS servers run ssh on port 2022. Be sure to check http://www.openbsd.org/anoncvs.html for which servers support what protocols. Next I will show how to do a simple source checkout. Here I will be using an AnonCVS server located in the U.S., but remember that if you are outside of the U.S you need to use a server that is located nearby. There are many AnonCVS servers located throughout the world, so choose one nearest you. I will also be using ssh to retrieve the files.
ericj@oshibana:~> export CVS_RSH=/usr/bin/ssh ericj@oshibana:~> echo $CVS_RSH /usr/bin/ssh ericj@oshibana:~> export CVSROOTemail@example.com:/cvs ericj@oshibana:~> cvs get src Warning: Remote host denied X11 forwarding, perhaps xauth program could not be run on the server side. cvs checkout: in directory src: cvs checkout: cannot open CVS/Entries for reading: No such file or directory cvs server: Updating src U src/Makefile [snip]
Notice here also that I set the CVSROOT environmental variable. This is the variable that tells cvs(1) which AnonCVS server to use. This can also be specified using the -d option. For example:
ericj@oshibana:~>cvs -d firstname.lastname@example.org:/cvs get src
These commands should be run in /usr, which will then create the directories of /usr/src, /usr/ports, and /usr/www. Depending, of course, on which module you checkout. You can download these modules to anywhere, but if you wanted to do work with them (ie make build ), it is expected that they be at the place above.
Once you have your initial tree setup, keeping it up-to-date is the easy part. You can update your tree at any time you choose, some AnonCVS servers update more often then others, so again check http://www.openbsd.org/anoncvs.html. In this example I will be updating my www module from anoncvs.usa.openbsd.org. Notice the -q option that I use, this makes the output not so verbose coming from the server.
ericj@oshibana:~> echo $CVSROOT email@example.com:/cvs ericj@oshibana:~> cvs -q up -PAd www Warning: Remote host denied X11 forwarding, perhaps xauth program could not be run on the server side. U www/want.html M www/faq/faq8.html ericj@oshibana:~>
For some, bandwidth and time are serious problems when updating repositories such as these. So CVS has a -z[1-9] option which uses gzip to compress the data. To use it, do -z[compression-level], for instance, -z3 for a compression level of 3.
The ports tree is a set of Makefiles that download, patch, configure and install userland programs so you can run them in OpenBSD environment without having to do all that by hand. You can get the ports tree from any of the OpenBSD ftp servers in /pub/OpenBSD/2.6/ports.tar.gz. The most recent ports are available via the 'ports' cvs tree, or /pub/OpenBSD/snapshots/ports.tar.gz. For most of you however, packages will be a much better option. Packages are created from ports and are already compiled and ready to use. To read more on packages read FAQ8.7.
If you are planning on running the latest version of the Ports Tree, you should have the latest release of OpenBSD. This is because of constant changing and fixing of the ports tree to help with its interaction with the rest of your OpenBSD system. If you don't follow this guideline, you can expect some minor problems while upgrading.
The best way to stay current with your OpenBSD Ports Tree is to use via cvs(1). OpenBSD has a whole group of Anonymous CVS servers that are available to anyone. To read more about cvs look over www.openbsd.org/anoncvs.html and Faq8.5.
Though, if you do not have the ports tree at all, you can download it via any of OpenBSD's ftp servers. You can get a list at www.openbsd.org/ftp.html. From here download /pub/OpenBSD/2.5/ports.tar.gz and untar this in /usr/ports. For example:
ericj@oshibana> ftp ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.5/ports.tar.gz ericj@oshibana> sudo cp ports.tar.gz /usr ericj@oshibana> cd /usr; sudo tar xfz ports.tar.gz
Once this is done, you can use cvs(1) to update your Ports Tree. If you started with a base Ports Tree of 2.5 there will be a few changes that you will need to make. Most notably /usr/share/mk, which holds files used by make(1) , will need to be updated. If you have the src tree on your system, you can update /usr/share/mk via cvs(1) and simply:
ericj@oshibana> cd /usr/src/share/mk; sudo make install
This will put the proper files into place. After this is done, you might also need the latest version of the make(1) binary. You will have to create this, if you don't have the src tree on your system you can grab it via cvs(1) and compile it. Example:
ericj@oshibana> export CVS_RSH=/usr/bin/ssh ericj@oshibana> cvs -firstname.lastname@example.org:/cvs get src/usr.bin/make cvs server: Updating src/usr.bin/make U src/usr.bin/make/Makefile U src/usr.bin/make/Makefile.boot U src/usr.bin/make/arch.c U src/usr.bin/make/bit.h U src/usr.bin/make/buf.c U src/usr.bin/make/buf.h U src/usr.bin/make/compat.c [SNIP] ericj@oshibana> cd src/usr.bin/make; sudo make install
If you already have the src on your machine, simply update make and install it. For now, this should be all you need to do to have the ports tree working properly.
A snapshot of the ports tree is also created daily and can be downloaded from any of the OpenBSD ftp servers as /pub/OpenBSD/snapshots/ports.tar.gz.
There are two ways of searching for ports. The first way is to check www.openbsd.org/portstat.html. There you will find a list of what ports are currently available. The other way is to actually use the ports tree to search for keywords. To do this use make search key="searchkey". Here is an example of a search for 'samba':
ericj@oshibana> make search key="samba" Port: samba-2.0.5a Path: /usr/ports/net/samba Info: free SMB and CIFS client and server for UNIX Maint: email@example.com Index: net B-deps: R-deps: Archs: any Port: ADMsmb-0.2 Path: /usr/ports/security/ADMsmb Info: Samba security scanner Maint: firstname.lastname@example.org Index: security B-deps: R-deps: Archs: any
Ports are set up to be EXTREMELY easy to make and install. Here is an example install for someone wanting to install the X11 program xfig. You'll notice the dependencies are automatically detected and completed:
First you need to cd to the dir of the program you want. If you are searching for a program, you can either update your
locate database, or use the search function talked about below. Once you are in the dir of the program you want, you
can just type make install. For example.
fenetyllin:/usr/ports/graphics/xfig# make install ===> Extracting for xfig-3.2.2 ===> xfig-3.2.2 depends on shared library: jpeg.62. - /usr/local/lib/libjpeg.so.62.0 found ===> xfig-3.2.2 depends on shared library: Xaw3d.6. - not found ===> Verifying install for Xaw3d.6. in /usr/ports/x11/Xaw3d >> Xaw3d-1.3.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist on this system. >> Attempting to fetch from ftp://crl.dec.com/pub/X11/contrib/widgets/Xaw3d/R6.1/. Connected to crl.dec.com. 220 crl.dec.com FTP server (Digital UNIX Version 5.60) ready. 331 Guest login ok, send ident as password. 230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply. Remote system type is UNIX. Using binary mode to transfer files. 200 Type set to I. 250 CWD command successful. 250 CWD command successful. Retrieving pub/X11/contrib/widgets/Xaw3d/R6.1/Xaw3d-1.3.tar.gz local: Xaw3d-1.3.tar.gz remote: Xaw3d-1.3.tar.gz 227 Entering Passive Mode (192,58,206,2,5,14) 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for Xaw3d-1.3.tar.gz (0.0.0.0,0) (290277 bytes). 100% |**************************************************| 283 KB 00:00 ETA 226 Transfer complete. 290277 bytes received in 101.09 seconds (2.80 KB/s) 221 Goodbye. ===> Extracting for Xaw3d-1.3 /bin/mkdir -p /usr/ports/x11/Xaw3d/work/xc/lib/Xaw3d/X11/Xaw3d cd /usr/ports/x11/Xaw3d/work/xc/lib/Xaw3d/X11/Xaw3d; ln -sf ../../*.h . ===> Patching for Xaw3d-1.3 ===> Configuring for Xaw3d-1.3 mv -f Makefile Makefile.bak imake -DUseInstalled -I/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config make Makefiles [snip]
You can see a list of both ports and packages by using the pkg_info command.
bsd# /usr/sbin/pkg_info zsh-3.0.5 The Z shell. screen-3.7.4 A multi-screen window manager. ssh-1.2.21 Secure shell client and server (remote login program). emacs-20.2 GNU editing macros. lynx-2.7.1ac-0.107 An alphanumeric display oriented World-Wide Web Client. tcsh-6.07.02 An extended C-shell with many useful features. bash-2.01 The GNU Borne Again Shell. zip-2.2 Create/update ZIP files compatabile with pkzip. mm-2.7 Implementation of MIME, the Multipurpose Internet Mail Exten ircii-2.8.2-epic3.004 An enhanced version of ircII, the Internet Relay Chat client ispell-3.1.20 An interactive spelling checker. tin-1.3.970930 TIN newsreader (termcap based) procmail-3.11p7 A local mail delivery agent. strobe-1.03 Fast scatter/gather TCP port scanner lsof-4.15 Lists information about open files. xntp3-5.92 Network Time Protocol Implementation. ncftp-2.4.3 nmh-0.27 The New MH mail handling program bzip2-0.1p12 A block-sorting file compressor
More information about the ports can be found in the ports(7) man page.
Our ports tree is constantly being expanded, and if you would like to help please see: http://www.openbsd.org/ports.html
Packages are the precompiled binaries of some of the most used programs. They are ready for use on an OpenBSD system. Again, like the ports, packages are very easy to maintain and update. Packages are constantly being added so be sure to check each release for additional packages.
Here is a list of tools used in managing packages.
If you are a smart user and bought one of the OpenBSD CD, then packages can be found on both CD's depending on your architecture. If you don't have an OpenBSD CD in your posession you can download packages from any of the ftp mirrors. You can get a list of mirrors http://www.openbsd.org/ftp.html. Packages are located at /pub/OpenBSD/2.6/packages from there packages are broken down depending on architecture.
$ sudo pkg_add -v screen-3.7.6.tgz Requested space: 749864 bytes, free space: 2239117312 bytes in /var/tmp/instmp.cpsHA27596 Running install with PRE-INSTALL for `screen-3.7.6' extract: Package name is screen-3.7.6 extract: CWD to /usr/local extract: /usr/local/bin/screen-3.7.6 extract: execute 'ln -sf screen-3.7.6 /usr/local/bin/screen' extract: /usr/local/man/man1/screen.1 extract: /usr/local/info/screen.info extract: execute '[ -f /usr/local/info/dir ] || sed -ne '1,/Menu:/p' /usr/share/info/dir > /usr/local/info/dir' extract: execute 'install-info /usr/local/info/screen.info /usr/local/info/dir' extract: /usr/local/lib/screen/screencap extract: /usr/local/lib/screen/screenrc extract: CWD to . Running mtree for `screen-3.7.6' mtree -q -U -f +MTREE_DIRS -d -e -p /usr/local Running install with POST-INSTALL for `screen-3.7.6' +--------------- | The file /etc/screenrc has been created on your system. | You may want to verify/edit its contents | | The file /usr/local/lib/screen/screencap contains a | termcap like description of the screen virtual terminal. | You may use it to update your terminal database. | See termcap(5). +--------------- Attempting to record package into `/var/db/pkg/screen Package `screen-3.7.6' registered in `/var/db/pkg/screen-3.7.6'
In this example the -v flag was used to give a more verbose output, this option is not needed, but is helpful for debugging and was used here to give a little more insight into what pkg_add(1) is actually doing. Notice however, that there are some valid messages given out mentioning /etc/screenrc. Messages like this will be given to you whether or not you use the -v flag.
$ sudo pkg_add ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.6/packages/i386/screen-3.7.6.tgz >>> ftp -o - ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.6/packages/i386/screen-3.7.6.tgz +--------------- | The file /etc/screenrc has been created on your system. | You may want to verify/edit its contents | | The file /usr/local/lib/screen/screencap contains a | termcap like description of the screen virtual terminal. | You may use it to update your terminal database. | See termcap(5). +---------------
In this example you can see that I installed the i386 package, you should substitute this with your architecture. Notice: Not all architectures have the same packages. Some ports don't work on certain architectures. In this example the -v flag wasn't used, so only NEEDED messages are shown.
The utility pkg_info(1) is used to view a list of packages that are already installed on your system. This is usually needed to find out the correct name of a package before you remove that package. To see what packages are installed on your system simple use:
$ pkg_info sslUSA26 ssl26.1 USA-only non-commercial crypto libs incl. SSL & RSA mpg123-0.59q mpeg audio 1/2 layer 1, 2 and 3 player nmap-2.3b6 port scanning large networks ircii-2.8.2-epic3.004enhanced version of ircII (internet relay chat) screen-3.7.6 multi-screen window manager unzip-5.40 extract, list & test files in a ZIP archive xntp3-5.93e-export Network Time Protocol implementation icb-5.0.9 Internet CB - mostly-defunct chat client
To delete a package, simple take the proper name of the package as shown by pkg_info(1) and use pkg_delete(1) to remove the package. In the below example, the screen package is being removed. Notice that on some occations there are instructions of extra objects that need to be removed that pkg_delete(1) did not remove for you. As with the pkg_add(1) utility, you can use the -v flag to get more verbose output.
$ sudo pkg_delete screen-3.7.6 +--------------- | To completely deinstall the screen-3.7.6 package you need to perform | this step as root: | | rm -f /etc/screenrc | | Do not do this if you plan on re-installing screen-3.7.6 | at some future time. +---------------
Sure. You need to add "flags 0x20" at the end of the fd* entry and recompile your kernel. The line should be read:
fd* at fdc? drive ? flags 0x20
After that you would be able to use the floppy drive all the times. It doesn't matter if you plugged it in after boot.
When booting your OpenBSD system, you have probably noticed the boot prompt.
For most people, you won't have to do anything here. It will automatically boot if no commands are given. But sometimes problems arise, or special functions are needed. That's where these options will come in handy. To start off, you should read through the boot(8) man page. Here we will go over the most common used commands for the bootloader.
To start off, if no commands are issued, the bootloader will automatically try to boot /bsd. If that fails it will try /obsd, and so on till it finds a bootable kernel. You can specify this by hand by typing:
boot> boot wd0a:/bsd
This will work if device wd0a is configured as your root device.
Here is a brief list of options you can use with the OpenBSD kernel.
These are entered in the format of: boot [ image [-abcds]]
For further reading you can read boot_i386(8) man page
S/Key is a ``one-time password'' scheme. This allows for one-time passwords for use on un-secured channels. This can come very handy for those who don't have the ability to use ssh or any other encrypted channels. OpenBSD's S/Key implementation can use a variety of algorithms as the one-way hash. Here is the list of algorithms available:
To start off the file /etc/skeykeys must exist. If this file is not in existence, have the super-user create it. This can be done simply by doing:
# touch /etc/skeykeys
Once that file is in existence, you can initalize your S/Key. To do this you will have to use skeyinit(1). With skeyinit(1), you will first be prompted for your password to the system. This is the same password that you used to log into the system. Running skeyinit(1) over an insecure channel is completely not recommended, so this should be done over a secure channel (such as ssh) or the console. Once you have authorized yourself with your system password you will be asked for yet another password. This password is the secret password, and is NOT your system password. The secret password is not limited to 8 characters like system passwords, actually it must be at least 10 characters. A few word phrases are suggested. Here is an example user being added.
oshibana:ericj> skeyinit ericj [Adding ericj] Reminder - Only use this method if you are directly connected or have an encrypted channel. If you are using telnet or rlogin, exit with no password and use skeyinit -s. Enter secret password: Again secret password: ID ericj skey is otp-md5 99 oshi45820 Next login password: HAUL BUS JAKE DING HOT HOG
One line of particular importance in here is ID ericj skey is otp-md5 99 oshi45820. This gives a lot of information to the user. Here is a breakdown of the sections and their importance.
But of more immediate importance is your password. Your password consists of 6 small words, combined together this is your password, spaces and all.
By now your skey has been initialized, and you have your password. You're ready to login. Here is an example session using s/key to login.
oshibana:ericj> ftp localhost Connected to localhost. 220 oshibana.shin.ms FTP server (Version 6.4/OpenBSD) ready. Name (localhost:ericj): ericj 331 Password [ otp-md5 96 oshi45820 ] for ericj required. Password: 230- OpenBSD 2.5-current (OSHIBANA) #8: Tue Jun 22 19:20:16 EDT 1999 230- 230- Welcome to OpenBSD: The proactively secure Unix-like operating system. 230- 230- Please use the sendbug(1) utility to report bugs in the system. 230- Before reporting a bug, please try to reproduce it with the latest 230- version of the code. With bug reports, please try to ensure that 230- enough information to reproduce the problem is enclosed, and if a 230- known fix for it exists, include that as well. 230- 230 User ericj logged in. Remote system type is UNIX. Using binary mode to transfer files. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye.
Some of you might have noticed that my sequence number has changed. otp-md5 96 oshi45820. This is because by now I have used s/key to login several times. But how do you get your password after you've logged in once? Well to do this, you'll need to know what sequence number you're using and your key. As you're probably thinking, how can you remember which sequence number you're on? Well this is simple, use skeyinfo(1), and it will tell you what to use. For example here, I need to generate another password for a login that I might have to make in the future. (remember I'm doing this from a secure channel).
oshibana:ericj> skeyinfo 95 oshi45820
From this I can create the password for my next login. To do so, I'll use skey(1). I can use exactly that output from above to create my password.
oshibana:ericj> skey 95 oshi45820 Reminder - Do not use this program while logged in via telnet or rlogin. Enter secret password: NOOK CHUB HOYT SAC DOLE FUME
I'm sure many of you won't always have a secure connect to create these passwords, and creating them over an insecure connection isn't feasible, so how can you create multiple passwords at one time? Well you can supply skey(1) with a number of how many passwords you want created. This can then be printed out and taken with you wherever you go.
oshibana:ericj> skey -n 5 95 oshi45820 Reminder - Do not use this program while logged in via telnet or rlogin. Enter secret password: 91: SHIM SET LEST HANS SMUG BOOT 92: SUE ARTY YAW SEED KURD BAND 93: JOEY SOOT PHI KYLE CURT REEK 94: WIRE BOGY MESS JUDE RUNT ADD 95: NOOK CHUB HOYT SAC DOLE FUME
Notice here though, that the bottom password should be the first used, because we are counting down from 100.
Using S/Key with telnet(1), ssh(1), or rlogin(1) is done in pretty much the same fashion as with ftp, only your first password must be "s/key". Example:
ericj@oshibana> telnet localhost Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. OpenBSD/i386 (oshibana) (ttyp2) login: ericj Password: <------------ "s/key" entered. otp-md5 98 oshi45821 Response: SCAN OLGA BING PUB REEL COCA Last login: Thu Oct 7 12:21:48 on ttyp1 from 184.108.40.206 Warning: no Kerberos tickets issued. OpenBSD 2.5-current (OSHIBANA) #4: Thu Sep 2 23:36:16 EDT 1999 Welcome to OpenBSD: The proactively secure Unix-like operating system. Please use the sendbug(1) utility to report bugs in the system. Before reporting a bug, please try to reproduce it with the latest version of the code. With bug reports, please try to ensure that enough information to reproduce the problem is enclosed, and if a known fix for it exists, include that as well. You have mail. ericj@oshibana>
For more control over S/Key there is the /etc/skey.access file. (This does not exist by default, so it must be created.) This file can restrict S/Key in three primary ways.
If I wanted to allow one single user ( ericj ), from a certain IP ( 10.1.1.5 ), I would create a file like so.
# cat /etc/skey.access permit internet 10.1.1.5 permit user ericj
8.11 - Why is my Macintosh losing so much time?
This is caused by a hardware bug. OpenBSD uses clock interrupts to keep track of the current time, but these interrupts have the lowest priority in Apple's architecture. So, under heavy load, (such as disk or network activity) clock interrupts will be lost and the Unix clock will not advance as it should.
MacOS gets around the time problem by always reading the hardware clock. OpenBSD only reads the hardware clock at boot time and thereafter ignores it. You may notice that, at shutdown, the kernel is not confident enough to write the Unix time back into the hardware clock because this time loss problem is well known.
The best solution is to run xntpd (found in the ports collection) and just deal with the occasional lossage. Sometimes the lossage is so bad that even xntpd is afraid to skip the time. In this case, add the -g option to ntpd in /etc/rc.securelevel to force tracking.
Another simpler but less precise solution is to run rdate(8) on a regular basis, for example by having a crontab entry for it, preferably with the -a option so there is no "jump" in time. Another good place to launch rdate(8) is in your /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup file if you are not permanently connected and are a PPP user.
See also: http://www.macbsd.com/macbsd/macbsd-docs/faq/faq-3.html#ss3.17
8.12 - Will OpenBSD run on multiprocessor machines?
OpenBSD/i386 will not make use of multiple processors, but will run using
one processor on a multi-processor system board. OpenBSD/sparc will not
run on a multi-processor sparc system at all. No other platforms currently
support multi-processor capabilities.
The reason is quite simple: there are not enough developers who have access to MP machines. If you want to donate MP hardware, please refer to http://www.openbsd.org/donations.html. Our developers are currently asking for i386, sparc, hppa, and other multi-processor hardware donations to begin SMP support. A project to bring multi-processor support to OpenBSD is underway, and progress can be check at http://www.openbsd.org/smp.html.
8.13 - I get Input/output error when trying to use my tty devices
As of OpenBSD 2.6, you need to use /dev/cuaXX for connections initiated from the OpenBSD system, the /dev/ttyXX devices are intended only for terminal or dial-in usage. While it was possible to use the tty devices in the past, the OpenBSD kernel is no longer compatible with this usage.
For hardware terminal ports, dial-out is supported through matching device nodes called calling units. For instance, the terminal called /dev/tty03 would have a matching calling unit called /dev/cua03. These two devices are normally differentiated by creating the calling unit device node with a minor number 128 greater than the dial-in device node. Whereas the dial-in device (the tty) normally requires a hardware signal to indicate to the system that it is active, the dial-out device (the cua) does not, and hence can communicate unimpeded with a device such as a modem. This means that a process like getty(8) will wait on a dial-in device until a connection is established. Meanwhile, a dial-out connection can be established on the dial-out device (for the very same hardware terminal port) without disturbing anything else on the system. The getty(8) process does not even notice that anything is happening on the terminal port. If a connecting call comes in after the dial-out connection has finished, the getty(8) process will deal with it properly, without having noticed the intervening dial-out action.
8.14 - Where can I find a Netscape binary for OpenBSD?
There is no OpenBSD Netscape binary. However since OpenBSD supports binary emulation of many other operating systems we are able to use other binaries.
Using the Ports System you can install these with no hassle. The Navigator Port and Communicator Ports are located at /usr/ports/www/netscape Once you have the ports tree installed.
Mg is a micro Emacs-style text editor. Micro means that it's small (Emacs is very large!) For the basics, read the mg(1) manual page and the tutorial, as included with the source code. For more interesting questions (such as, "I don't have a Meta key!") check out the Emacs FAQ.
Note that since mg is a small Emacs implementation, which is mostly similar to the text editor features of Emacs 17, it does not implement many of Emacs' other functionality. (Including mail and news functionality, as well as modes for Lisp, C++, Lex, Awk, Java, etc...)
There are two possible reasons for this.
Under xterm, argv for ksh is not prepended with a dash. Prepending - to argv will cause csh and ksh to know they should interpret their login files. (For csh that's .login, with a separate .cshrc that is always run when csh starts up. With ksh, this is more noticeable because there is only one startup script, .profile. This file is ignored unless the shell is a login shell.)
To fix this, create a file in your home directory called .Xdefaults with the phrase XTerm*loginShell: true
You may not have had to do this before, because some installations of X Windows come with this setting as default. OpenBSD has chosen to follow the XFree86 behavior.
The /etc/motd file is edited upon every boot of the system, replacing the first line with the systems kernel version information. When editing this file, make sure that you start 2 lines from the top, to keep /etc/rc from deleting these lines when it edits /etc/motd upon boot.
Although none of the developers think it is particularly relevent, this question comes up frequently enough in the mailling lists that it is answered here. www.openbsd.org and the main OpenBSD ftp site are hosted at a SunSITE at the University of Alberta, Canada. These sites are hosted on a large Sun system, which has access to lots of storage space and Internet bandwidth. The presence of the SunSITE gives the OpenBSD group access to this bandwidth. This is why the main site runs here. Many of the OpenBSD mirror sites run OpenBSD, but since they do not have guaranteed access to this large amount of bandwidth, the group has chosen to run the main site at the University of Alberta SunSITE.
There exists a condition in OpenBSD 2.8 where some machines might not detect some PCI devices properly, or might freeze while detecting multiple NIC's in one machine. This is the fault of PCIBIOS, and involves a simple workaround to make work properly. Simply enter the boot time configuration and disable PCIBIOS. An example is below:
boot> boot -c OpenBSD 2.8 (GENERIC) #377: Tue Oct 24 03:04:08 MDT 2000 email@example.com:/usr/src/sys/arch/i386/compile/GENERIC cpu0: Intel Pentium III (Coppermine) ("GenuineIntel" 686-class) 390 MHz cpu0: FPU,V86,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,SYS,MTRR,PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,MMX,FXS R,SIMD real mem = 66629632 (65068K) avail mem = 56770560 (55440K) using 838 buffers containing 3432448 bytes (3352K) of memory UKC> disable pcibios UKC> quit [... snip ...]
Once this is done, you can follow the directions in FAQ 5.6 to create a new kernel so that you don't have to worry about this in the future.
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